Coat of Arms
President Robert Gabriel Mugabe
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» Chewa, Chibarwe, English,
Kalanga, “Koisan”, Nambya,
Ndau, Ndebel, Shangani,
Shona, Sotho, Tonga, Tswana,
» Dominant-party presidential republic
» 390,757 km2
» $7.731 billion
»Per capita $589
» $10.978 billion
»Per capita $837
» Zimbabwean Dollar (ZWD)
» CAT (UTC+2)
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers.
It is bordered by South Africa to the south, Botswana to the southwest, Zambia to the northwest and Mozambique to the east. The capital is Harare. Zimbabwe achieved de jure sovereignty from the United Kingdom in April 1980, following 14 years as an unrecognized state under the conservative white minority government of Rhodesia, which unilaterally declared independence in 1965.
Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona and Ndebele being most common. Cecil Rhodes’ British South Africa Company first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s, becoming a self-governing colony as Southern Rhodesia in 1923.
Mineral exports, gold, agriculture, and tourism are the main foreign currency earners of Zimbabwe. The mining sector remains very lucrative, with some of the world’s largest platinum reserves being mined by Anglo-American plc and Impala Platinum.
The Marange diamond fields, discovered in 2006, are considered the biggest diamond find in over a century.
In terms of carats produced, the Marange field is one of the largest diamond producing projects in the world, estimated to produce 12 million carats in 2014 worth over $350 million. Zimbabwe is the biggest trading partner of South Africa on the continent.
The ICT sector of Zimbabwe has been growing at a fast pace. A report by the mobile Internet browser company, Opera, in June/July 2011 has ranked Zimbabwe as Africa’s fastest growing market.
Zimbabwe is ranked 101 with an Economic Complexity Index (ECI) of -0.618508
Top 5 Products exported by Zimbabwe
- Diamonds (18%),
- Gold (18%),
- Raw Tobacco (13%),
- Nickel Mattes (9.9%),
- Ferroalloys (7.3%)
Top 5 Export destinations of Zimbabwe
Top 5 Products imported by Zimbabwe
- Refined Petroleum (17%),
- Cars (7.2%),
- Delivery Trucks (5.4%),
- Raw Tobacco (2.2%)
Top 5 Import origins of Zimbabwe
- South Africa (42%),
- United Kingdom (15%),
- United States (7.6%),
- China (5.7%)
Zimbabwe boasts several major tourist attractions. Victoria Falls on the Zambezi, which are shared with Zambia, are located in the north west of Zimbabwe. Before the economic changes, much of the tourism for these locations came to the Zimbabwe side but now Zambia is the main beneficiary.
The Victoria Falls National Park is also in this area and is one of the eight main national parks in Zimbabwe, largest of which is Hwange National Park.
The Eastern Highlands are a series of mountainous areas near the border with Mozambique.
The highest peak in Zimbabwe, Mount Nyangani at 2,593 m (8,507 ft) is located here as well as the Bvumba Mountains and the Nyanga National Park. World’s View is in these mountains and it is from here that places as far away as 60–70 km (37–43 mi) are visible and, on clear days, the town of Rusape can be seen.
- Hwange National Park. Located between Victoria Falls and Bulawayo, the park boasts more than 100 different animal species and over 400 species of birds. It is one of the few great elephants sanctuaries in Africa with over 30,000 elephants.
- Matobo Hills National Park. Also known as Matopos, this small park close to Bulawayo was awarded a UNESCO world heritage status in 2003 for its fascinating natural features and wildlife.
- Great Zimbabwe Ruins. Located in the vicinity of Masvingo, the 3rd Zimbabwean city, Great Zimbabwe ruins are the remains of one of greatest African civilizations after the Pharaohs: the Kingdom of Great Zimbabwe dominated the area from present Zimbabwe, East of Botswana and South East of Mozambique in the late Iron Age (between 1100 and 1450 AD). From the impressive granite stone complex that was once built, the ruins span 1,800 acres (7 km2) and cover a radius of 100 to 200 miles (160 to 320 km)