Coat of Arms
President Ollanta Humala
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» Unitary presidential constitutional republic
» 1,285,216 km2 (20th)
» $403.322 billion
» Per capita $12,638
» $217.607 billion
» Per capita $6,819
» Nuevo sol (PEN)
» PET (UTC−5)
Peru officially the Republic of Peru is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean.
Peru is an extremely biodiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river.
Peruvian territory was home to ancient cultures spanning from the Norte Chico civilization in Caral, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America.
The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty with its capital in Lima, which included most of its South American colonies.
Ideas of political autonomy later spread throughout Spanish America and Peru gained its Independence, which was formally proclaimed in 1821. After the battle of Ayacucho, three years after proclamation, Peru ensured its independence.
The economy of Peru is classified as upper middle income by the World Bank and is the 39th largest in the world. Peru is, as of 2011, one of the world’s fastest-growing economies owing to the economic boom experienced during the 2000s.
It has a high Human Development Index of .752 based on 2011 data; Historically, the country’s economic performance has been tied to exports, which provide hard currency to finance imports and external debt payments.
Although they have provided substantial revenue, self-sustained growth and a more egalitarian distribution of income have proven elusive. According to 2010 data, 31.3% of its total population is poor, including 9.8% that lives in extreme poverty.
Inflation in 2012 was the lowest in Latin America at only 1.8%, but increased in 2013 as oil and commodity prices rose; as of 2014 it stands at 2.5%. The unemployment rate has fallen steadily in recent years, and as of 2012 stands at 3.6%.
Top 5 Products imported by Peru
- Crude Petroleum (8.4%),
- Refined Petroleum (5.5%),
- Cars (4.2%),
- Delivery Trucks (3.7%),
- Large Construction Vehicles (2.3%)
Top 5 Import origins of Peru
- United States (19%),
- China (18%),
- Brazil (6.0%),
- Ecuador (4.8%),
- Argentina (4.7%)
Tourism in Peru makes up the nation’s third largest industry, behind fishing and mining.
Tourism is directed towards archaeological monuments, ecotourism in the Peruvian Amazon, cultural tourism in colonial cities, gastronomic tourism, adventure tourism, and beach tourism.
According to a Peruvian government study, the satisfaction rate for tourists after visiting Peru is 94%. Tourism is the most rapidly growing industry in Peru, growing annually at a rate of 25% over the past five years.Tourism is growing in Peru faster than any other country in South America.
- Machu Picchu – As Peru’s most popular tourist attraction and one of the world’s most famous archaeological wonders, Machu Picchu is located 7,000 feet (2,100 meters) above sea level in the Andes Mountains.
- Cusco – Often serving as a popular base to explore nearby famous ruins like Machu Picchu and the Sacred Valley of the Incas, Cusco was the historic capital of the Inca Empire.
- Arequipa – One of Peru’s most visited cities, Arequipa is surrounded by three picturesque volcanoes in the country’s Southern Coastal region.
- Sacred Valley – Once the heartland of the Inca Empire, The Sacred Valley of the Incas is a valley in the Andes, close to Cusco and the ancient city of Machu Picchu.
- Lima – As Peru’s capital and largest city, Lima is a sprawling metropolis constituting an architectural blend of pre-Hispanic, colonial and modern infrastructure.
- Nazca Desert – The Nazca Desert occupies a strip along the northern Pacific coast on a high arid plateau. The famous Nazca Lines are located between the towns of Nazca and Palpa. Created between 200 BC and 700 AD the figures range from simple lines to stylized spiders, monkeys, lizards and human figures.
- Puno – Puno is a port city on the shores of Lake Titicaca on the Altiplano of Peru. Despite its picturesque hillside setting, the city itself is a ramshackle collection of mostly unfinished modern buildings.
- Mancora – Once just an attractive roadside fishing port, Mancora is now the most trendy beach in Peru, attracting a surf crowd from around the globe.