Coat of Arms
President Joko Widodo
»Unitary presidential constitutional republic
»1,904,569 km2 (15th)
»$2.840 trillion (8th)
» Per capita -$11,135(102nd)
»$895.677 billion (16th)
» Per capita -$3,511 (117th)
»Indonesian rupiah (Rp) (IDR)
»various (UTCGMT+7 GMT+9)
Indonesia is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Indonesia is an archipelago comprising thousands of islands. With an estimated total population of over 252 million people, Indonesia is the world’s fourth-most-populous country. Indonesia’s republican form of government comprises an elected legislature and president. It encompasses 34 provinces, of which five have Special Administrative status. The nation’s capital city isJakarta. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Indonesia is a founding member of ASEAN and a member of the G-20 major economies. The Indonesian economy is the world’s 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 8th largest by GDP (PPP).
The Indonesian archipelago has been an important trade region since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and then later Majapahit traded with China and India. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural, religious and political models from the early centuries CE, and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Muslim traders brought the now-dominant Islam while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery.
Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups. The largest – and politically dominant – ethnic group are the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a majority Muslim population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia’s national motto, “Bhinneka Tunggal Ika” (“Unity in Diversity” literally, “many, yet one”), articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the world’s second highest level of biodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources, yet poverty remains widespread.
Indonesia has a mixed economy in which both the private sector and government play significant roles. The country is the largest economy in Southeast Asia and a member of the G-20 major economies. Indonesia’s estimated gross domestic product (nominal), as of 2012 was US$928.274 billion with estimated nominal per capita GDP was US$3,797, and per capita GDP PPP was US$4,943 (international dollars).
The gross domestic product (GDP) is about $1 trillion and the debt ratio to the GDP is 26%. According to World Bank affiliated report based on 2011 data, the Indonesian economy was the world’s 10th largest by nominal GDP (PPP-based), with the country contributing 2.3 percent of global economic output. The industry sector is the economy’s largest and accounts for 46.4% of GDP (2012), this is followed by services (38.6%) and agriculture (14.4%). However, since 2012, the service sector has employed more people than other sectors, accounting for 48.9% of the total labour force, this has been followed by agriculture (38.6%) and industry (22.2%). Agriculture, however, had been the country’s largest employer for centuries.
According to World Trade Organization data, Indonesia was the 27th biggest exporting country in the world in 2010, moving up three places from a year before. Indonesia’s main export markets (2009) are Japan (17.28%), Singapore (11.29%), the United States (10.81%), and China (7.62%). The major suppliers of imports to Indonesia are Singapore (24.96%), China (12.52%), and Japan (8.92%). In 2005, Indonesia ran a trade surplus with export revenues of US$83.64 billion and import expenditure of US$62.02 billion. The country has extensive natural resources, including crude oil, natural gas, tin, copper, and gold. Indonesia’s major imports include machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, and foodstuffs, and the country’s major export commodities include oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, rubber, and textiles.
Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia and the country’s largest commercial center.
The tourism sector contributes to around US$9 billion of foreign exchange in 2012 and ranked as the 4th largest among goods and services export sectors. Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, China and Japan are the top five source of visitors to Indonesia.
Indonesia is ranked 69 with an Economic Complexity Index (ECI) of -0.0199196
Top 5 Products exported by Indonesia
- Coal Briquettes (12%),
- Petroleum Gas (9.3%),
- Palm Oil (8.3%),
- Crude Petroleum(5.9%),
- Rubber (4.1%)
Top 5 Export destinations of Indonesia
- Japan (15%),
- China (12%),
- Singapore (9.1%),
- United States (8.4%),
- South Korea (7.2%)
Top 5 Products imported byIndonesia
Refined Petroleum (15%),
- Crude Petroleum (5.5%),
- Planes, Helicopters, and/or Spacecraft (2.4%),
- Vehicle Parts (1.8%),
- Cars (1.5%)
Top 5 Import origins of Indonesia
- China (16%),
- Singapore (14%),
- Japan (11%),
- South Korea (6.9%),
This ever-intriguing, ever-intoxicating land holds some of the last great adventures on earth. Sitting in the open door of a train whizzing across Java, idling away time on a ferry bound for Kalimantan, hanging on to the back of a scooter on Flores or simply trekking through wilderness you’re sure no one has seen before – you will enjoy endless exploration of the infinite diversity of Indonesia’s 17,000 islands.
Venturing through the islands of Indonesia, you will see a land as diverse and unusual as those living upon it. Look at Sulawesi on a map and you will save yourself the cost of a Rorschach test. Or view Sumatra from the air and be humbled by a legion of nearly 100 volcanoes marching off into the distance, several capable of blowing at any time.
Dramatic sights are the norm. There’s the sublime: an orangutan lounging in a tree.
The artful: a Balinese dancer executing precise moves that would make a robot seem loose-limbed. The idyllic: a deserted stretch of blinding white sand on Sumbawa set off by azure water and virescent jungle hills. The astonishing: the mobs in a cool and glitzy Jakarta mall on a Sunday. The humbling: a woman bent double with a load of firewood on Sumatra. The solemn: the quiet magnificence of Borobudur.
The world’s fourth most populous country – 245 million and counting – is a sultry kaleidoscope that runs along the equator for 5000 km. It may well be the last great adventure on earth. From the western tip of Sumatra to the eastern edge of Papua, this nation defies homogenisation. It is a land of so many cultures, peoples, animals, customs, plants, features, artworks and foods that it is like 100 countries melded into one.
And we are talking differences that are not just about an accent or a preference for goat over pork; we are talking about people who are as radically different from each other as if they came from different continents. No man may be an island, but here every island is a unique blend of the men, women and children who live upon it. Over time, deep and rich cultures have evolved, from the mysteries of the spiritual Balinese to the utterly non-Western belief system of the Asmat people of Papua.
- Indonesia is home to 167 active volcanoes, far more than any other country. Don’t let this fact scare you, though, as most are dormant and what you see is most often their topography rather than spewing smoke.
- Some of the more accessible mountains for visitors are in the Bromo-Tengger-Semeru National Park and the Ijen Crater in East Java, Mount Rinjani in Lombok and perhaps easiest of all, Mount Batur, and Mount Agung, it’s neighbour in Bali.
- Hardly surprisingly in the world’s largest archipelago, beaches are significant attractions. Aside from the obvious like Bali and
- Lombok, there are wonderful beaches in off-the-beaten-track locations, especially in Maluku, Nusa Tenggara and Sulawesi. In a nation of 18,000+ islands, the options are almost endless.
- An endemic Sumatran Orangutan in the Gunung Leuser National Park
- Indonesia has some of the largest remaining tracts of tropical forest anywhere in the world, and these support an incredibly diverse wildlife from Orangutans and other primates to critically endangered Javan Rhinoceros and Sumatran Tigers, and an extraordinarily wide range of bird species.
- Forest areas recognised as UNESCO World Heritage Sites are Ujung Kulon National Park in West Java, and three huge parks inSumatra, which together comprise the Tropical Rain Forest Heritage of Sumatra: Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park, Gunung Leuser National Park and Kerinci Seblat National Park. Sadly, the forests of Kalimantan are disappearing at an alarming clip due to illegal logging.
- Unfortunately, in more populated areas, even nearby forests, such as much of Java, bird species are disappearing at an alarming rate due to the bird trade.
- Birds are a major source of income for poor trappers, and the birds are sold to people in cities, most of which spend the rest of their days in individual cages.
- Most commonly seen are finches, sparrows, swallows and certain other birds that are of lesser interest to pet bird owners. The various species of burung Cendrawasih (bird of paradise) of Papua are mostly endangered. Snakes are also in serious decline in many places due to a knee-jerk reaction to any snake: “Kill it!” Yet, you can see scorpions, whip scorpions, spiders, mole crickets (which make a terribly loud, droning sound at night), many butterflies and moths, the elusive and rare squirrel, certain types of monkeys, geckos, including the Tokek (TOE-kay: Tokay gecko) and a variety of cicak (geckos), as well as the undesirable mice, rats, shrews, cockroaches, termites, and, in numbers that may boggle your mind, ants of various sizes and shapes and personalities.
- Indonesia is paradise for those who want to study arachnids and insects. Bali sports a nice butterfly park, as well as Turtle Island. 6 of 7 kinds of turtles can be found in Indonesia sea water and even 4 kinds of turtles can be found only in Kampung Penyu (Turtle Village) in Selayar Island, South Sulawesi.
- Further east, Komodo Island is the home of the remarkable Komodo Dragon and a very diverse marine life. Close to the very eastern limit of Indonesia, the remote Lorentz National Park in Papua has a permanent glacier, and is the single largest national park anywhere in Southeast Asia.
- Indonesia is home to several beautiful scuba diving and snorkelling spots in many different places, such as Bali, Lombok,Nusa Tenggara, the Thousand Islands north of Jakarta, Bunaken, Selayar Islands, Raja Ampat and Indonesia is also very famous for surfing.