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Canada is a country in North America consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean.
Covering 9.98 million square kilometres in total, Canada is the world’s second-largest country by total area and the fourth-largest country by land area. Its common border with the United States forms the world’s longest land border.
The land that is now Canada has been inhabited for millennia by various Aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the late 15th century, British and French colonies were established on the region’s Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various conflicts, the United Kingdom gained and lost North American territories until left, in the late 18th century, with what mostly comprises Canada today.
Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1, 1867, three colonies joined to form the autonomous federal Dominion of Canada. This began an accretion of provinces and territories to the new self-governing Dominion. In 1931, Britain granted Canada near total independence with the Statute of Westminster 1931 and full sovereignty was attained when the Canada Act 1982 severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.
Canada is the world’s eleventh-largest economy as of 2015, with a nominal GDP of approximately US$1.79 trillion.
It is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the Group of Eight (G8), and is one of the world’s top ten trading nations, with a highly globalized economy.
Canada is a mixed economy, ranking above the US and most western European nations on the Heritage Foundation’s index of economic freedom, and experiencing a relatively low level of income disparity. The country’s average household disposable income per capita is over US$23,900, higher than the OECD average. Furthermore, the Toronto Stock Exchange is the seventh largest stock exchange in the world by market capitalization, listing over 1,500 companies with a combined market capitalization of over US$2 trillion as of 2015.
In 2014, Canada’s exports totalled over C$528 billion, while its imported goods were worth over $523 billion, of which approximately $349 billion originated from the United States, $49 billion from the European Union and $35 billion from China. The country’s 2014 trade surplus totalled C$5.1 billion, compared with a C$46.9 billion surplus in 2008.
Since the early 20th century, the growth of Canada’s manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy to an urbanized, industrial one. Like many other developed nations, the Canadian economy is dominated by the service industry, which employs about three-quarters of the country’s workforce. However, Canada is unusual among developed countries in the importance of its primary sector, in which the logging and petroleum industries are two of the most prominent components.
Top 5 Products imported by Canada
- Cars (7.4%),
- Crude Petroleum (4.4%),
- Delivery Trucks (3.7%),
- Computers (2.9%),
- Gold (2.8%)
Top 5 Import origins of Canada
- United States (46%),
- China (14%),
- Mexico (5.4%),
- Japan (4.1%),
- Germany (3.8%)
The Canadian Tourism Commission (CTC) (French: Commission Canadienne du Tourisme [CCT]) was created in 1995 to promote tourism in Canada. It is a Crown corporation, wholly owned by the Government of Canada, which reports to the Minister of Industry.
The CTC states that it “is dedicated to promoting the growth and profitability of the Canadian tourism industry by marketing Canada as a desirable travel destination and providing timely and accurate information to the Canadian tourism industry to assist in its decision making.”
It also claims to “recognise that the greatest source of tourism knowledge and expertise rests with the tourism industry itself. Therefore, the CTC designs delivers and funds marketing and research initiatives in partnership with provincial and regional tourism associations, government agencies, hoteliers, tour operators, airlines and attractions managers.”
The commission is headed by a 26 person board of directors which is overseen by a President and Chief Executive Officer, chosen from the combined private and public sector nature of the industry to represent the various regions of Canada as well as the country’s demographic composition.
- Whistler’s Wonders – Whistler is a fabulous ski resort, that along with Vancouver hosted the 2010 Olympic Winter Games.
- Drumheller’s Dinos – Forget Jurassic Park. You can find a 26-metre-tall dinosaur (viewing platform in its mouth) in Drumheller, Alberta, the “dinosaur capital of the world.”
- Belugas and Bears – Churchill, Manitoba, with a population of just about 1,000, might not seem like a tourist capital. But visitors flock here for the chance to observe up close two fascinating creatures.
- All Falls Down – However you see it—an observation deck at its side, a boat at its foot, a tunnel behind it, a helicopter ride from above—Niagara Falls, Ontario is one of the wonders of the world.
- Last Gaspe – Montreal and Quebec City are unrivalled, but another Quebec destination, the Gaspésie, has its own charms. In 1534, Jacques Cartier erected a cross at the end of Gaspé Bay and claimed Canada on behalf of the King of France.
- Nature’s Roller Coaster – Twice daily, the mighty Bay of Fundy fills up with and empties 100 billion tonnes of water, creating the highest tides in the world.